This is a third piece I’ve put up where I simply applied ink with a ruling pen. The idea of these is to create an interesting image, using very simple ink strokes. If there is balance and good spacing, there can be a pleasing result. Having spent some time experimenting with these, I think there is a principle at work similar to that in Japanese shodo (calligraphy), even though there is minimal resemblance between this and shodo. The principle, I think, is balance and harmony without symmetry or alignment. The ink spots/spray were created by digging into the paper with the pen so that the vibration caused the ink to spray.